Give a description of the pathophysiology of lower and upper urinary tract infections, including their similarities and differences. Then explain how the two factors( genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior) you selected might impact the pathophysiology of the infections, as well as the diagnosis of and treatment for the infections.
A 57?year?old female presented with a 13 year history of diabetes. Due to the failure of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in controlling her sugar levels, for the last 3 years, she was treated with biphasic insulin aspart 30/70. She was a very frequent ier, a regular swimmer and socially very active, and this led her to have irregular meals. Hence, she often go into frequent hypoglycemia and during the last 6 months the patient’s average blood glucose level during fasting were 170 mg/dL and postprandial glucose levels varied from 230 to 280 mg/dL. Even after high sugar levels, she […]
Clay is a 24 year old, 6 feet, 220 pound, sedentary male. Diet analysis revealed Clay’s average caloric intake for three days was 6000 calories and he’s maintaining his current body weight. He’s also averaged 900 grams of carbohydrate, 166 grams of fat, and 226 grams of protein for that three-day period. Clay used to rodeo and is a fairly strict vegetarian, spanning the spectrum of vegan to lactovegetarian to lacto-ovo-vegetarian depending on his current mood. He also avoids alcohol and various forms of tobacco. His vitamin B12 intake averaged 0.24 ?g/day. Clay’s recommendation for B12 is 2.4 ?g/day. What […]
A 41-year-old male presents to the emergency room complaining of frequent urination, increased hunger, “always being thirsty,” and fatigue. He is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In your initial post answer the following questions: In explaining to him the physiological reason for his symptoms, what cellular functions do you think would help him understand his disease? How might you explain his fatigue on a cellular level?
Describe the viral characteristics of HIV and discuss why the virus eventually results in the disease AIDS. If the patient is in the initial few weeks of their HIV infection, is it likely that the test will show their true HIV status? Would the test need to be repeated at a later date? If so, why? Why would we treat the nurse with an Antiretroviral drug? (check out the website for help with this question: https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/hiv-prevention/using-hiv-medication-to-reduce-risk/post-exposure-prophylaxis ) Why would we want to monitor CD4+ cell populations in a person that is suspected to have contracted HIV?
Consider the three major views of bioethics (Paternalism, Radical Individualism & the Reciprocal View), do you believe the “doctor knows best”? Who or what should make decisions for individuals regarding their best care? What would this look like in practice? Have you or your family members had experiences with the doctor- patient relationship in regards to privacy, quality and disclosure?